Drawing Fundamentals

Drawing is the Language of an Engineer which describes ability to design future.

To execute perfect drawings it is required to have a good quality instruments rather than ordinary instruments and know very well about their use.

List of Drawing Instruments

 1.  Drawing Board

  • To make lines on a drawing paper smooth and straight, a polished drawing board is one of the top most requirements.

2.  Tee-Square

  • T-Square consists of two main parts, one is blade and other is head which are rigidly fastened together.
  • T-square is useful to draw perfect straight and parallel lines on drawing paper or sheet.
  • It is must to keep edge of head on left side of the drawing board so blade will be on the drawing sheet.

NOTE: T-Square alone should never be used to draw vertical lines.

3.  Mini-Drafter

  • This instrument gives faster drawing as it serves the purpose of T-Square, Set-Square, Protractor and scales.
  • During drawing operation using mini drafter two blades of it always remain parallel to their set position no matter where they are moved on sheet.

4.  Set-Square

  • Set-Squares are available in 45º and 30º-60º angles. From this type of set we can easily draw different angle lines as shown below.

5.  Scales

  • There are different types of scales are available in current market which includes Mechanical Engineer’s scale, Metric scale, Inch scale, Civil Engineer’s scale and Architect’s scale.
  • Size of the scale is depending on what kind of drawing you are implementing in project or during drawing operation.

6.  Protractor

  • As we all know about it, it is used to find angles or for measurement of angles.
  • Protractors are available in semicircular and circular shapes.

7.  French Curves

  • To draw arc of circles accurately and uniformly French Curves are used.
  • Most of all drawing instruments and French Curves also made of transparent material.

8.  Circle Master

  • It is thin plate of plastic which contains cuts of different diameters.

9.  Drafting Paper

  • A plain smooth paper or sheet is used for drawing work.
  • Paper should have good erasing quality.

10.  Pencils

  • Mainly two types of pencils are used in engineering drawing 2H grade pencil and HB grade pencil.
  • 2H lead pencil is used to draw light lines (whole background drawing) and HB lead is used to draw dark lines (to separate few lines from drawing to show dimensions, answers etc..)

Names And Sizes of  Standard Sizes Of  Drawing Boards.

Sr. No.

Designation

Size Of The Drawing Board In (mm)

Name Of The Drawing Board

01

B0

1500 X 1000

Antiquarian

02

B1

1000 X 700

Double Elephant

03

B2

700 X 500

Imperial

04

B3

500 X 350

Half Imperial

Names And Sizes of  Standard Sizes Of  Drawing Sheets.

Sr. No.

Designation

Size Of The Drawing Sheet In (mm)

Trimmed

Size Of The Drawing Sheet In (mm)

Untrimmed

Length

Width

Length

Width

01

A0

1189

841

1230

880

02

A1

841

594

880

625

03

A2

594

420

625

450

04

A3

420

297

450

330

05

A4

297

210

330

240

06

A5

210

148

240

165

 

Types of Pencil Leads Grades.

Sr. No

Name of Pencil Lead Grade

Type of Lead

01

8B

VERY SOFT GRADE

Sr No 1 to 6

02

7B

03

6B

04

5B

05

4B

06

3B

07

2B

MEDIUM GRADE

Sr No 7 to 11

08

B

09

F

10

H

11

2H

12

3H

VERY HARD GRADE

Sr No 8 to 19

13

4H

14

5H

15

6H

16

7H

17

8H

18

9H

19

10H