Projection of Points – Point’s position will be given in data. We need to find out its projection on H.P. (Horizontal Plane) and on V.P. (Vertical Plane).

There are maximum four quadrant wise positions possible of point. As we all know about quadrant, there are 4 quadrants exist. See figure below.

Here are four quadrant wise positions for any point.

- Above H.P. and In Front of V.P. which shows point is in First Quadrant
- Above H.P. and Behind V.P. which shows point is in Second Quadrant
- Below H.P. and Behind V.P. which shows point is in Third Quadrant
- Below H.P. and In Front of V.P. which shows point is in Fourth Quadrant

See figure below.

Let us check these quadrants in H.P. (Horizontal Plane) and on V.P. (Vertical Plane) view. See figure below.

*To find solution of problems based on projections we need to rotate H.P. (Horizontal Plane) in clockwise direction to 90º.*

After this rotation of H.P. it will become parallel to V.P. See fig below.

**Solved Example:**

**Data: A Point “M” is 40 mm above H.P. and 40 mm in front of V.P. Draw its projections.**

**Solution:** As point’s position is above H.P. and In Front of V.P. it is in First Quadrant. See figure below.

We will get m’ projected on V.P. for front view which shows Elevation and m on H.P. for top view which shows Plan.

So, plan will be 40 mm in front of V.P. and Elevation will be 40 mm above H.P.

As per we discussed before for solution we need to rotate H.P. in clockwise direction up to 90º. See figure below.

So the solution for the above data is:

*Plan: Projection on H.P. **Elevation: Projection on V.P.*

In same way we can find projections for any point at any condition. Just remember to rotate H.P. at 90º while drawing solution.

**Here are few important notes:**

- When point is in 1
^{st}quadrant, its plan will be below XY (reference line) and elevation will be above XY. - When point is in 2
^{nd}quadrant, its plan and elevation both will be above XY. - When point is in 3
^{rd}quadrant, its plan will be above XY and elevation will be below XY. - When point is in 4
^{th}quadrant, its plan and elevation both will be below XY.

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if both the views of a point coincides on the reference line then point lies which angle

Point lies on reference line itself. And default quadrant considered as first.

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Why we rotating object by 90 deg clockwise

If we dont rotate clockwise direction then we cant see the top view from front direction as we are drawing our solution by keeping front view as default view.

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What if the distance from any PP is not given, do we need to take a random distance for drawing the LPP or RPP projections?

if distance is not there then you need to consider object exactly on xy reference line.

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What about a point lying in all the three principle planes.

it will be projected at intersecting point of two reference lines.

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